View, download and interact with the Ingenuity 3D model.
|Main Job||A technology demonstration to test the first powered flight on Mars. The helicopter will ride to Mars attached to the belly of the Perseverance rover.|
|Launch||July 30, 2020, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida|
|Landing||Feb. 18, 2021|
|Landing Site||Jezero Crater, Mars|
|Length of Mission||One or more flights within 30 days|
|Fact Sheet ›|
Taking Flight on Another World
The Mars Helicopter, Ingenuity, is a technology demonstration to test powered flight on another world for the first time. It is hitching a ride on the Perseverance rover. A series of flight tests will be performed over a 30-Martian-day experimental window that will begin sometime in the spring of 2021. For the very first flight, the helicopter will take off a few feet from the ground, hover in the air for about 20 to 30 seconds, and land. That will be a major milestone: the very first powered flight in the extremely thin atmosphere of Mars! After that, the team will attempt additional experimental flights of incrementally farther distance and greater altitude. After the helicopter completes its technology demonstration, Perseverance will continue its scientific mission.
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"When once you have tasted flight, you will forever walk the earth with your eyes turned skyward, for there you have been, and there you will always long to return."
5 Things to Know
First test of powered flight on another planet.
Built to be light and strong enough to stow away under the rover while on the way to Mars, and survive the harsh Martian environment after arriving on the surface. The helicopter weighs less than 4 pounds (1.8 kilograms).
Powerful enough to lift off in the thin Mars atmosphere. The atmosphere of Mars is very thin: less than 1% the density of Earth's.
The helicopter may fly for up to 90 seconds, to distances of almost 980 feet (300 meters) at a time and about 10 to 15 feet from the ground. That's no small feat compared to the first 12-second flight of the Wright Brothers' airplane.
The helicopter flies on its own, without human control. It must take off, fly, and land, with minimal commands from Earth sent in advance.
How the Helicopter is Released
Ingenuity will hitch a ride on the Perseverance rover's belly, covered by a shield to protect it during the descent and landing. Once at a suitable spot on Mars, the shield covering beneath the rover will drop. Then, the team will release the helicopter in several steps to get it safely onto the surface.
Anatomy of the Mars Helicopter
'Hover' or 'click' on the orange dots to learn about the parts on the Mars Helicopter.
Solar PanelA solar panel helps keep the battery charged. x
Avionics & BodyIts avionics — or "brains" — help the helicopter function and navigate. The body has insulation and heaters to keep sensitive electronics warm and survive cold Martian nights. x
Sensors & CamerasSensors collect data on how fast the helicopter is traveling and in which direction. Cameras help the helicopter see. x
BladesMade of carbon fiber foam core provide lift in the thin Mars atmosphere. x
BatteriesBatteries help power the helicopter. x
LegsUltra-light legs made of carbon fiber tubes help it land after flight. x
|Weight||4 pounds on Earth; 1.5 pounds on Mars|
|Width||Total length of rotors: ~4 feet (~1.2 meters) tip to tip|
|Power||Solar panel charges Lithium-ion batteries, providing enough energy for one 90-second flight per Martian day (~350 Watts of average power during flight)|
|Blade span||Just under 4 feet (1.2 meters)|
|Flight range||Up to 980 feet (300 meters)|
|Flight altitude||Up to 15 feet (5 meters)|
|Flight environment||Thin atmosphere, less than 1% as dense as Earth's|
- Survive launch, cruise to Mars and landing on the Red Planet.
- Deploy safely to the Martian surface from the belly pan of the Perseverance rover and unfold from its stowed position correctly.
- Keep warm (autonomously) through the intensely cold Martian nights (as frigid as minus 130 degrees Fahrenheit, or minus 90 degrees Celsius).
- Charge (autonomously) using its solar panel.
- Confirm communications with the rover and flight operators on Earth.
- Spin up its rotor blades for the first time (to a speed below what would be needed for flight).
- Lift off for the first time in the thin Martian atmosphere.
- Fly autonomously.
- Land successfully.